UNIPRESS/Colorado Russian World
http://www.russiandenver.50megs.com/exergytower_e.html

Maisotsenko Exergy Tower,
or on the edge of new era

Dr. Ilya Treyger

The international radio station "Voice of America" has recently added its voice to the growing chorus calling for the world to be switched to renewable energy sources. This conversion is unavoidable, but it will take decades for such sources to become widespread.

How can we make sense of this? Many decades have already passed. Various types of renewable energy sources are well known and in some cases ubiquitous. Hydroelectric power has been around for some time producing energy on an industrial level. Wind turbines have been around for a century and are also widespread. Solar-cell panels have been used for decades and serve as an energy source for the satellite and space industry. And finally, solar concentrators have been used since the time of Archimedes of Syracuse, c. 230 BC.

 

 

 

 

Novel renewable energy sources have been developed in recent times. For example, a group scientists from Princeton have learned how to generate electrical power from human movement applying flexible nanogenerators. Other scientists from Denmark have discovered a species of oceanic bacteria that are fully capable of generating electrical power and even are able to transfer it. A new critically-acclaimed energy source  can be derived from the thermodynamic cycle known as a Maisotsenko-Cycle (M-Cycle) that we have already described in our previous publication The Air Seller or Thermodynamics for Idiots through the Maisotsenko Cycle.

Doesnt it seem curious, considering the fact that we have such a large variety of renewable energy sources, that  we are still decades away from full implementation? Unfortunately it is true. On the other hand, the situation may not be as bad as it first appears. Science is not at a stop, and we now have a truly radical movement in this direction 

Let's for a minute imagine that suddenly, through some universal cataclysm the laws of physics have been changed.  Thus a perpetual motion machine has now become possible. Could it give us a chance to get out of our energy problems? At first the answer seems like yes, but on further examination we have to say no!

This case is in accordance with the laws of physics.  To generate energy it is necessary first to apply energy. Practical human capabilities are limited not only by the laws of physics, but also by the laws of economics.  This means that in order to generate energy we have to not only apply energy, and we also have to pay for the applied energy. This is the main problem!  Go back to the illustration of a perpetual motion machine that is capable of generating one single kilowatt of energy annually.  Imagine that we have to invest one billion dollars in this project. Do you think that it would it be possible to find any investor ready to invest such money in this project? Of course, such a "power station" would start to pay off only after a century and the investor would die in poverty.

The same situation exists with renewable energy sources. All of them, e.g. hydro energy, wind energy, and solar energy sources behave like perpetual motion machine because they are inexhaustible, that is, as long as our sun shines.  However, to extract this energy we have to pay at minimum for the equipment. None of the known renewable energy sources are cheaper than the cost of energy extracted from the traditional fossil sources. Energy extraction from renewable sources is thus always more expensive in comparison with traditional sources.

The basis of this fact is the potential pressure drop. The pressure drop is the difference between the inlet and outlet of the generator or turbine.  All natural and renewable sources for producing energy are of very low potential drop, and therefore of  low efficiency. This is why the only option to develop natural energy sources is on an industrial level.  If we can increase the potential difference, then we can make such sources much more attractive economically..

The best example to illustrate this matter is the hydroelectric power station. Water mills have been in use for many centuries. Only in recent decades have they been able to generate power on an industrial level. To accomplish this it is necessary to build large artificial reservoirs with dams as high as possible. By these means we can increase the potential pressure difference. However, we are limited by how high we can make the dam and by how large we can make the reservoir. The volume of the reservoir is limited by the water flow of the river. Other intractable problems such as inevitable silt buildup, destruction of habitat and farmland, salt in the water, legal issues, civic and irrigation needs, and high evaporation rates complicate the picture. There are now many hydroelectric power stations working on an industrial level, but they still cannot produce enough energy to meet demand. For now, traditional fossil power sources serve as our main source of electrical energy.

This situation with hydroelectric power is clear. What about wind energy?  Why is this source more expensive that traditional fossil sources?  The reason is the same very low potential difference between the point of high atmospheric pressure and the point of low atmospheric pressure that creates the wind itself.  Additionally, wind blows intermittently and not always with the desired force.  Thus, efficiency of the wind turbine cannot exceed 40%. Further, a wind turbine cannot generate electricity directly but has to be connected to the generator through reducing gears that further lower efficiency. The final cost of the electricity generated by wind turbines is 80 times higher compared with the traditional sources.  

If so, why are traditional sources of energy able to generate higher potential differences if coal, gas and oil are also natural in origin?

Wind is a source of energy created by the potential difference in the atmosphere. Coal, gas and oil are sources of energy accumulated during millions of years. This energy that has been accumulating for millions of years is extracted immediately in a very short time by burning.  This is why we have so high potential difference, because we do not create it but only release it. We do not have this option with regard to known renewable sources. There is the only way to use them we must learn how to artificially increase the potential difference at a cost not higher in comparison with releasing the potential difference.

In the case of hydroelectric power this problem has been resolved, but the limitation of water production cannot be resolved as a matter of principle. In the case of wind energy this problem has not been resolved. With regard to wind energy this problem has been solved on the physical level but not on the economic level.

One approach to increase the potential difference is the Energy Tower by professor Zaslavsky of Israel.  This tower must be a minimum of 1000 meters high.  Air is humidified at the top of the tower and as a result of evaporative cooling, the air becomes heavy and falls down creating a flow capable of turning a turbine. From a physical standpoint the result is achieved.  From an economic standpoint well, first, the tower has to be a minimum of 1000 meters high and that makes it extremely expensive.  Second, the water for humidifying the air has to be delivered to the top of the tower and that feat requires almost 50% of the energy generated.  Further, the temperature of the air cannot be decreased lower that the wet bulb temperature and this limits the potential difference. As a final result the cost of the energy generated by the tower is still much higher in comparison with traditional sources.

Still popular are solar concentration towers that are now in use in many countries around the world. Solar energy is enhanced by a concentrator which warms the air inside the tower.  As a result the air becomes lighter and goes up creating the flow necessary to turn a turbine.  A solar tower is cheaper than Zaslavsky tower because the device is not so high and there is no need for water. However even power created by a solar tower is more expensive in comparison with traditional sources, since the potential difference is limited by the difference in temperature of the air warmed in the tower and the surrounding air.

Until recently nothing more efficient was known.  That is until now, with the discovery of a new thermodynamic cycle that has become well-known as the M-Cycle.

Previously we have published information about the M-Cycle.  Mentioned was the Solar Air Conditioner having a heat and mass exchanger of a unique type. With this application the potential difference is limited not by the wet bulb temperature such as in Zaslavsky's Tower, but by the dew point temperature which is always lower.  In other words, this heat and mass exchanger produces significantly greater amounts of energy.

This effect has been clearly demonstrated by the Solar Air Conditioner.  Due to commercial reasons the company producing this product, Coolerado, Inc. has focused particularly on the promotion of these air conditioners created by Prof. Maisotsenko, et al.  Further development of  the M-Cycle for energy production has been necessarily laid aside for the future.  These Solar Air Conditioners are currently meeting market demand all over the world in Africa (Nigeria),  Australia, the Middle East (Saudi Arabia and UAE), and in Europe including even the moist country of England. This high demand was completely predictable because the energy consumption of the Coolerado Air Conditioner is 10 times less compared with traditional compression air conditioners.  For another thing, all of us are familiar with the intolerable stuffiness when there is a crowd in an air conditioned room or especially in an airplane.  This happens because with a traditional air conditioner, 85% of the cooled air is recirculated air.  Just 15% of the air comes from fresh air.  The reason for this is because otherwise the traditional air conditioner is not affordable.  In other words, people in the rooms conditioned by the traditional air conditioners have to breathe used air instead of fresh air.  In comparison, the Coolerado air conditioners are working on 100% fresh air; thus there is no need to explain the importance of this benefit.

Since the Coolerado Air Conditioners are based on the evaporation process, it is clear that in order to use them in different geographical regions, they have to be adapted to these regions. In the process of this research it was discovered that energy production derived from the Maisotsenko heat and mass exchanger is significantly lower in cost than energy production from traditional burn sources.

Nothing in our world can be completely static. Everything in our world exists in a state of evolution whether we like it or not.  In the article The Air Seller or Thermodynamics for Idiots through the Maisotsenko Cycle it was mentioned that in the development process of  the Solar Air Conditioner an interesting phenomenon was noticed.  The heat and mass exchanger of this conditioner generates energy by extracting the potential energy of the air and transfers such potential energy into kinetic energy. Since this effect has been discovered in the device created by Idalex, Inc. and Coolerado, Inc.,  it is likely that the same team will further develop this discovery.  And so it happened,  Dr. Maisotsenko couldn't avoid the elaboration of the energy production device. Here is the result:


In this figure we can see two concentric cylinders forming two air channels. The external cylinder is inherent to the body frame of the tower. The internal cylinder is thin-walled  and made of water impermeable material, wherein the external surface is moistened. In such a way, in the central channel the air is dry, and in the peripheral channels the air is wet. Humidity in the second channel launches the process that we have described previously. In the central channel the air is moving downward as in the Zaslavsky Tower, and in the second channel the air is moving upward as in the solar towers. Yet this tower can work 24 hours without loss of effectiveness.

In accordance with a sizing calculation, such a tower formed in a fireplace chimney of a single family home would be capable of generating a minimum of 25 Kw/h of electricity. And, in addition, if gray water is used for moistening the wet channel, the tower can produce up to 120 thousands of litters of fresh water daily.  That is enough not only for one single family home but for several of them.  Further, considering that the energy output of the tower is a function of height, it is easy to imagine what output we could have if the tower would be of 50 or 100 meters in height

Everything said above is based on the assumption that we deal with the "theoretical" tower. However, in our material world nothing exists in the "theoretical" form. The device is intended to be used on a real planet, wherein we have also sunshine, wind, rain, snow, gravitation, etc. Whether we like it or not wind exists in nature.  We can utilize it by use of an air intake like the standard windsock. And if the wet air in the tower has been supplied with additional warming, this will take additional weight from the air. These two factors automatically increase the energy output of the tower by many times. In such a manner a tower formed in a single family home could be capable of supplying energy not only for this particular house but even for the whole neighborhood.

Everything said above is interesting by itself; but there is something else important in particular.

The figure above represents a basic diagram of the Maisotsenko Energy Tower, but in a particular engineering design.  In reality the Maisotsenko heat and mass exchanger is formed as a lump of wet capillary paper being of insignificant cost.  It is not just any paper but specially designed paper with a specific structure. Still, the cost of this bundle is insignificant because the production process of this heat and mass exchanger has been already been automated by Coolerado, Inc.  Theoretically, the only aspect of development needed is the body frame of the tower. It is theoretical, but not yet practical.

On a practical basis, if we need to build towers, that will occur in the future, not today.  Consider then, that every industrial plant has a chimney.  And every civil building has ventilation channels. So long as all industrial chimneys and ventilation channels are supplied with the aforementioned heat and mass exchanger along with a wind turbine, we do not have to build new towers to produce energy, since we already have them in good supply,

On the whole, we have a 100% renewable energy source, wherein the cost of one kilowatt is significantly less in comparison with traditional burn sources.  If so, and we already have it, why would we still need decades to be completely switched to these sources?

In order to start implementation it is necessary to first build a pilot device.  This takes time. After that it is necessary to create a production line to produce heat and mass exchangers specifically designed for the Energy Tower.  This takes time also.  Further, it is necessary to supply the existing chimneys and ventilation channels with the heat and mass exchangers and a wind turbine.  Everything takes time. Now the question is about a reasonable amount of time, not decades


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