UNIPRESS/Colorado Russian World
http://www.russiandenver.50megs.com/met.htm

 

A PATH TO ENERGY ABUNDANCE CAN BE FOUND THROUGH THE MAISOTSENKO CYCLE
Dr. Ilya Treyger, Ph.D.


The development of clean energy is a key to creating jobs and a strong economy, Barack Obama said.

As an example, the American president pointed to the company BrightSource, which plans to build the worlds largest solar-powered power plant in California's Mojave Desert. According to him, this project would employ about a thousand people and, upon completion, will produce electricity from solar power for about 140,000 homes.

Obama also accused the Republicans of promising to remove all incentives for clean energy projects including existing ones. The American president said that the termination of this program will result in the transfer of competitiveness in this sector to China and elsewhere.

What in fact are the parties arguing about?  Is it really about the sources of "clean energy" as an industry, or is it about only one specific project, that proposed by the company BrightSource?

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Back in 1892 the great Nikola Tesla concluded his lecture at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers with the words: We are whirling through endless space with an inconceivable speed, all around us everything is spinning, everything is moving, and everywhere there is energy. There must be some way of availing ourselves of this energy more directly.

It took a hundred years for Tesla's prediction to come true. A hundred years - through hydro generation, wind mills and, finally, solar panels- for humanity to reach this point. Yet it is not entirely through these means that this prediction can be realized.  There is a new thermodynamic cycle discovered by an American scientist of Soviet origin, a doctor of technical sciences, Professor Valery Maisotsenko.  This discovery is officially registered as the Maisotsenko-Cycle (M-Cycle).

As of today, the Maisotsenko-Cycle has been granted many accolades, both expected and unexpected.  The author has been elected as member of the International Tesla Society Presidium. However, in correlation with the issue that the American president has addressed, let us consider what the Maisotsenko thermodynamic cycle is all about.  

The main ways to use renewable solar energy today are: the transformation of radiant heat, wind and water movement, and small temperature differences between deep and superficial layers of the larger bodies of water. However the author of the M-Cycle has found a way to use another form of solar energy, which is less known, but may well serve as an effective source of renewable energy. This is the energy of the surrounding atmosphere.

In general the atmosphere consists of moist air, which is a mixture of dry air with water vapor. When the water evaporates into the air energy is expended. This leads to a decrease of the air temperature. So, there is a difference between air temperature and atmospheric air that is in contact with the evaporating water. This difference is called the psychrometric temperature difference. Since any potential difference (including temperature) can be a source of energy, equilibrium of the atmosphere in terms of the psychrometric temperature difference is an energy resource as well.  However, before implementation of the M-Cycle, psychometric temperature difference was so small that it was not possible to use it as an effective energy resource. Dr. Maisotsenko significantly increased the psychrometric temperature difference.  Thus the application of this renewable energy technology for different sectors of industry and transport became possible. This facilitates the reduction of energy and fuel consumption. At the same time it can increase technical, economic and also environmental performance (see table).

The Maisotsenko cycle (M-cycle) can be explained more clearly as follows. We may recall even from childhood the conventional aneroid barometer. On the scale we can see a zone of high atmospheric pressure associated with dry air and an area of low atmospheric pressure associated with moist air. In view of well known physical laws, the air from the area of high atmospheric pressure moves into the area of the low atmospheric pressure, thus creating a wind.  This wind will exist until the heat and mass exchange between the

moving layers of air and atmospheric pressure between the zones is equalized. Obviously, if we artificially humidify the air in one of the points in space, we thus artificially create a zone of low pressure, which in turn causes an artificial wind by moving air masses come from the zone of high atmospheric pressure. If, in addition, we also divide the dry and wet flows in such a way as to prevent the phenomenon of mass transfer between them, then this artificial wind is constant and does not subside. Through creation of an artificial constant wind, we receive a mass carrier that is available to produce energy.

This in fact is an engineering solution, known as the Maisotsenko-Cycle (M-Cycle). The scientist has developed a heat and mass-exchanger in which the air streams are divided, wherein one of which is artificially moistened. Thus, a permanent artificial working wind within the device is created.

 

The Maisotsenko cycle and the full scope of its application are protected by more than 200 patents worldwide. The first time the M-Cycle technology was proven and realized was by the Coolerado Corporation This American company produces several types of air conditioners --commercial, residential, solar and hybrid. As proven by the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), Coolerados air conditioners are up to 10 times more efficient than traditional systems. Coolerados hybrid air conditioners are even more efficient. The energy derived from atmospheric air through the M-Cycle is the most economical form of green energy. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the FEMP review (DOE/GO-102007-2325): Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars. Coolerado Air Conditioners can be found in markets around the world- in Japan, Europe, Australia and South America, Singapore as well as in the USA from Washington to Florida.

Another example of application is the so-called M-Recuperator, which implements the M-Cycle for all heat engines, including automobile engines.

The effectiveness of the M-Cycle in this application is based on advanced heat recovery technology. It is accomplished by implementing a unique process of cooling through evaporation of water into the air. Any engine of internal or external combustion (Diesel, Otto, Brighton, Stirling, Wankel, etc.), working through the M-Cycle, does not require any additional water.  It makes use of  returned water that is extracted from the exhaust gases. Here we utilize not only the heat of exhaust gases, but also the heat taken away from the engine through the cooling jacket. Thus the cars radiator is no longer needed, which by design has low heat dissipation, large dimensions, and considerable weight. In addition, the minimum temperature for cooling in the M-Cycle is the dew point of ambient air. This depends on its moisture content not always below the ambient temperature, but also below its wet bulb temperature. Therefore, in hot weather or in the mountains where the air is thin, the radiator is of low effectiveness and the engine may overheat.  In contrast, the engine running by means of the M-Cycle runs more efficiently in more extreme thermal conditions. As a result, due to the heat of exhaust gas recycled through the M-Cycle, we have an improvement of the combustion process. This means the exhaust generates eight to twelve times less volume of harmful emissions released into the atmosphere. Perhaps most importantly, it has half the fuel consumption compared to any existing models, including hybrid cars. Consider the value of a 6-cylinder vehicle producing 70 miles per gallon, with almost no poisoning of the air, and with a price point at a few thousand dollars less than current conventional models!

The official testing of the Maisotsenko Cycle by the University of California Davis Energy Efficiency Center (EEC),   proved that the heat and mass-exchanger, working on this cycle provides an 80% power savings.

It follows from this ... what is the percentage of oil consumption in the U.S. that is burned by cars? 65%. What percentage of oil could be saved by using vehicles with the aforementioned Maisotsenko heat recuperator? 80%. This means that 52% of oil burned in automobile engines could be saved by using the M-Recuperator, i.e. there is a real opportunity to save half of the total oil burned in U.S.  51% is the percentage of imported oil in the overall quantity of oil in the U.S.  In other words, if the Maisotsenko heat and mass-exchanger was installed in all cars, it would allow the U.S. to completely stop importing oil from the Middle East and South America! The country could gain full energy independence from foreign suppliers.

Another example is the so-called solar air conditioner, which is a compact device with a fan running from a small solar panel and blowing air into the Maisotsenko heat and mass-exchanger. The output is a strong flow of cold air.

And yet, it is also an incredibly inexpensive water desalinator with low power consumption. It is capable of producing fresh water not only from salty or contaminated water but also able to extract fresh water directly from the atmospheric air. That is to say, the device is capable of producing fresh water even in the Sahara desert.

A hybrid air conditioner is the usual compression air conditioner equipped with the Maisotsenko heat and mass-exchangers. This results in a reduction of energy consumption by 80%.

A special device based on M-Cycle for cooling conventional solar cells is already in use by the Coolerado Company (Denver, Co). The efficiency of solar cells thus increases 15% to 32% in comparison with conventional solar cells.

Also, using the - cycle together with solar radiation and wind energy technologies allows significant opportunity for many applications. For example, the Solar Coolerado Cooler R600 can cool a 2,500 square foot space and only uses about 700 watts of power. That means it only needs four, 200 watt photovoltaic panels to power it. A traditional compressor based air conditioner would require 20 to 40 solar panels to harvest enough solar energy to power the system.

Cooling towers - a device based on the M-Cycle that significantly reduces the temperature of cooling water in the tower, and thus effectively recycles the heat that is emitted onto the atmosphere in conventional devices.

It should be noted that all aforementioned engineering solutions are not just theoretical futuristic pipe dreams. Some of devices based on the M-Cycle are already in the market. Almost all of these practical applications are already being produced by Coolerado, Inc. on a commercial basis. However, most of this is in foreign markets but not so much in the U.S..  There are devices installed in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and almost the whole world, even Russia. There is some interest in U.S. too, but this interest is mainly of scientific character and is not commercial. The apex of the practical application of the Maisotsenko cycle is the direct production of energy from ambient air. It is especially disappointing that it was virtually unreported in the U.S.

This effect was discovered in the solar air conditioner.  A small fan powered by a compact solar panel, blowing into the Maisotsenko heat and mass-exchanger creates the output stream of cold air.  However this flow at the outlet is more powerful than the initial flow from the fan at the inlet. In accordance with the 2nd law of energy conservation, in this case we may formally consider this as being a perpetual motion machine. Its founder can be accused of being a charlatan or at least of being a technical illiterate. We can rightly think so if we will not take into consideration what is really going on inside heat and mass-exchanger.

If the flow at the outlet was created solely by the input stream, we would consider a device as being a perpetual motion machine. However, the output flow is not created solely by the input stream. The flow at the inlet only launches the heat and mass exchange process that extracts from the air an extra portion of the potential energy of the air, transforming it into kinetic energy that creates a new flow more powerful than the initial stream. In other words, there is a process of generating kinetic energy from the extracted internal energy of the air. When this effect was observed and its physical nature understood, the concept of Maisotsenko Exergy Tower (MET) was formed. This is what the tower is about:

In the figure we see two concentric cylinders forming two air channels. The outer cylinder is actually a tower chassis. A thin-walled inner cylinder is made ​​of a material with the inner surface impervious to moisture and the wetted outer surface. Thus, central air channel contains dry air and the outer channel contains moist air. The moisture occurring in the second channel starts the process that we have described previously. Here, in the central channel of the tower the air flow moves from the top to the bottom, like in the energy tower of Zaslavsky (Israel), and in the second channel the air moves from the bottom to the top, like in conventionally known solar towers. The effectiveness of such a tower is much higher (many times) in comparison with any known similar solutions. It works all year around, 24 hours a day with no dependence on season, time or weather conditions.

According to preliminary calculations, such a tower being installed in the existing chimney of a standard two or three level house is able to generate at least 10 kW/h of electricity working 24 hours a day. In addition, there are some by-products production of cold air and water. That means that in summertime this house is no longer in need of energy for air conditioning. And if gray water is used to moisten the wet channel the production of purified water will be up to two thousand liters per day. That is enough not only for the needs of one family but for many others also. Considering that the energy performance of the tower, among other things, is a function of the height of the tower, it is easy to imagine how much energy could be produced from the Maisotsenko heat and mass-exchanger installed in an ordinary factory chimney 50 or 100 meters of height.

 

Discussed above is with respect to an M-Tower (MET) in a pure form. But nothing in our material world can exist in a pure form. MET in fact is designed to work on our particular planet where the sun shines the wind is blowing. In the case of a wind MET equipped with the air intake, wherein to existing energy potential additional energy is added, which could be utilized by wind generators. Through the external cladding of the tower, the air in a concentric channel can receive additional heating from solar radiation, and therefore we have an increase of air weight loss. Thus, even without our intention, this installation along with psychrometric air power automatically utilizes solar energy as well as in conventionally known solar towers. Due to these two additional factors the efficiency of the installation can be increased several times and would be able to provide with abundant energy not only a single private house, but even the entire neighborhood.

The given figure is not an engineering drawing but just a schematic diagram. In reality, there is no inner cylinder but just a large surface of the wet crepe paper with capillary properties at the cost of pennies. However, this is somewhat exaggeratedOf course, this paper is not cellulose but is synthetic.  The corrugations are somewhat similar to a honeycomb. This paper is moistened in an ingenious way. Still, paper is paper and the cost is still negligible. The process of corrugation is already being automated by the same company Coolerado, Inc., and is produced at a low cost. Theoretically, significant cost is required only in the building of the tower. However, the price of even the most expensive factory chimney is a pittance compared with any power station of any conventionally known type.

Anyway, debates about the costs of the MET are purely theoretical because today we are not in need of building such towers. The fact is that any factory has a factory chimney and any building, especially high-rise building, has ventilation channels. The Maisotsenko heat and mass-exchanger retrofitted into these existing chimney and ventilation channels converts these effectively into Exergy Towers. The prevalence of existing chimneys and ventilation channels is quite enough to meet current energy needs. What then about the future? All future factories will have chimneys, and all future buildings will have ventilation channels. So, most likely even in the future we will not be in need to spend money for building special towers 

***

As is easily seen, the prediction of the great Tesla has come to pass, but only in that part where the great genius said that there are ways to waste the energy that surrounds us everywhere. However, this prediction was wrong where the scientist says that when it does, humanity will advance with giant strides. Why? Let us return to the biography of Tesla. This is the famous project of Tesla in 1903, when his tower was completed at Long Island in northern suburb of New York.  With the help of equipment located on the tower, Tesla was going to affect the earth's ionosphere and shake the heavens with astonishing energy of the ocean. But this, of course, was totally unacceptable for the magnates of the already established power business ... As a result; G. Morgan Sr. in the same year cut off funding for this project and part of the electrical equipment was dismantled for salvage. And so the scientific achievements of the genius of Tesla began to be diligently mocked and just hushed up.

Something like that, apparently, is happening now. No, the practical applications of the M-Cycle are not ridiculed or silenced. Many of the possible practical applications of the Maisotsenko thermodynamic cycle are intensively discussed and studied around the world and not only in the U.S. But this interest does not extend beyond the purely scientific level. For example, in Canada the University of Ontario Institute of Technology is examining the ability of air power by using the M-Cycle.

In GB University of Nottingham is carrying out mathematical modeling of the M-Cycle in its implementation in various fields of science and technology. Japanese researchers (Tokyo University of Agriculture) are exploring the possibility of combination of the M-cycle with solar radiation.

All applications that came to the world market are mainly from interest outside of the U.S. And this state of affairs is hardly surprising or accidental. Yes, it is advantageous if a car could consume half as much gasoline than before the modifications. Who benefits? The consumer. Is it beneficial to the companies that produce gasolineObviously not, since the reduction in consumption reduces their amount of profit.

Of course, it is advantageous for every home to have its own power source and access to electricity without paying a company for it. However this is only beneficial to the consumer. For producers it is like a death knell because their product is no longer in such high demand. This seems to be the essence of the dispute between President Obama and Republicans. Obama is not talking about a specific type of solar power, but indeed about the renewable energy industry as a whole. American conservatives also have in mind not a specific solar application, but namely renewable energy in principle. This is because of their being traditional supporters of U.S. corporate interests especially in the energy sector.  In other words, history once again repeats itself. The question that remains is what form it will take this time - a tragedy or a farce?  One hundred years ago the world was very different.  It was not globalized. Thus what opportunities America will not snatch, other countries will. America may well be set back...

 

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